london plane tree canker stain

The LTOA has become a UK partner in the new Euphresco project Identification of Cryphonectria and Ceratocystis spp. Promote plant vigor by protecting the tree from stresses. In short, the legislation effectively banned the movement of plane plants into the UK unless they had been grown in an area free of canker stain of plane, and were accompanied by a plant passport certifying this. We have also set up a new CSP working party made up of 8 LTOA members which will be looking at drawing up guidance for tree officers and contractors. Canker stain of plane is a disease which can affect several species of plane trees (trees in the Platanus genus). We therefore encourage tree and ground-care professionals, plane tree owners and managers, and the public, to be vigilant for signs of it and to report suspected sightings immediately. var addy_textb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 = 'executive.officer' + '@' + 'ltoa' + '.' + 'org' + '.' + 'uk';document.getElementById('cloakb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2').innerHTML += ''+addy_textb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2+'<\/a>'; A study workshop weekend in Padua, Italy, on canker stain of plane: a new collaboration venture between TreeworkEnvironmental Practice and De Rebus Plantarum. The London Tree Officers Association currently have 150 tree officers across London with 45 associate members who carry out annual plane tree surveillance. Ceratocystis platani causes a disease in plane trees known as "Canker stain of plane" (UK English) or "Canker of sycamore" (US English). Click here to find out how to become an associate member, Members, if you don't login to the website, you won't see all the resources that are exclusively available to you, including presentations at quarterly meetings. an area free of C. platani. Valley. Introduced to the south of France from the USA in the 1940s Now found in Europe across France, Italy, Switzerland, Greece and Albania. The disease has also been known as plane tree wilt. This pathogen poses a significant risk to plane trees in the UK because plane is widely used as an urban amenity species in parks and public gardens, and alongside streets and roads. C. platani can infect most species of plane trees. occurring on sweet chestnut and Platanus spp. These should be clear, well-lit, close-up pictures of symptoms. See ‘Official action’ below for details of a survey conducted in 2014. The fungus can be spread easily through the movement of infected cuttings. Affected trees decline so markedly that it is unlikely that the disease would have remained undetected if it had reached here. Famous tree-lined avenues such as the Mall in London could be rendered unrecognisable for decades by a catastrophic tree disease spreading across Europe. Often wilting just occurs on one branch and then spreads. In Europe, both Oriental plane and London plane trees are seriously threatened by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis platani (Walter) Engelbr. The booklet was authored by international expert in Ceratocystis platani Professor Lucio Montecchio, of De Rebus Plantarum at the University of Padua. These can become roughened and black with age. See the information on this disease in the "Common Plant Diseases" section. London plane tree is attacked by a number of pests. Read our operational statement about COVID-19, Not present in United KingdomNotifiable – see ‘Report a sighting’ belowScientific name of causal agent - Ceratocystis platani. -canker stain is a serious fungal disease-frost cracks on trunks-may show leaf scorch in very dry summers-lace bugs may cause premature defoliation, but do not harm the tree Habitat-Zone 4-believed to be of hybrid origin involving a cross of American Sycamore (P. occidentalis) and Oriental Planetree (P. orientalis), which confers anthracnose It is not known to be present in the UK. Increasingly, people are developing allergies to London plane pollen. Beneath the cankers, the wood is stained bluish black or reddish brown in a wedge-shape (when viewed in cross section) with the point of the wedge extending toward the center of the trunk or branch. Plane tree planting material, other than seeds, intended for planting must now have been grown throughout their lifetime in a pest-free area, i.e. The first is called Canker stain of plane: A guide to prevention and is a brief reminder for tree officers and contractors of the importance of biosecurity in the fight to prevent Ceratocystis from entering the UK. The canker may at first just appear to be a darkened, flattened area on the wood. The disease’s presence in our near neighbours and trading partners in continental Europe heightens the risk of its being accidentally introduced into the UK. The disease mostly proliferates through human activity. Since 2014 the LTOA has been leading on monitoring plane trees in London for the presence of canker stain, working closely with the Forestry Commission, Forest Research and several tree officers and managers to survey thousands of trees across the capital … Inspections were undertaken at 53 sites across 28 London boroughs. It produces resilient, long-lived spores which spread the disease, and these can persist in soil and on un-sterilised pruning and cutting tools. document.getElementById('cloakb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2').innerHTML = ''; Please contact This email address is being protected from spambots. The disease can also be transferred through root contacts between neighbouring trees, and by water. What does plane wilt look like? On behalf of the Forestry Commission, the London Tree Officers' Association (LTOA) surveyed 2,979 London plane trees in 2014 for symptoms of C. platani infection. Some of the 'Additional resources' listed below also have illustrations. The new measures include more stringent requirements, and are based on the earlier Protected Zone arrangements. Its spread can therefore be limited by sourcing plant material from regions free of the disease, and by practising strict biosecurity (plant hygiene), such as disinfecting tools with alcohol before moving on to the next tree. In the oldest known centre, at Gloucester, New Jersey, of the canker stain disease of the London plane tree (Platanus acerifolia), caused by Endoconidiophora [Ceratocystis] fimbriata f. platani Walter n.f. The London plane {Platanus acerifolia Willd.) Sparse, thin crown with yellowing leaves. Search terms in quotes will enable a more specific search e.g. The ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani causes canker stain, also known as plane tree wilt, on several plane species, including London plane (Platanus x acerifolia) and its parents, P. orientalis and P. occidentalis. The major foliage disease of sycamores is anthracnose, although several cultivars of London plane have resistance. Powdery mildew is also an important foliage disease, usually affecting the appearance of trees in late summer. var path = 'hr' + 'ef' + '='; PZS surveys for CSP are carried out annually in the UK. All three species are large maturing deciduous … Infected trees exhibit sparse chlorotic (yellowing) foliage, and sometimes sunken, elongated or lens-shaped cankers (like oozing sores) in the bark (below). People receiving or handling imported plane material should be especially vigilant. New requirements were therefore introduced for plane plants being moved anywhere in the EU/UK. European collaboration on canker stain of plane trees is an article published in ARB Magazine and can be viewed by clicking here. var addyb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 = 'executive.officer' + '@'; is a hybrid betw^een American sycamore ... we have learned that the fungus occurs occasionally on the native plane- tree… Larger agricultural and landscaping equipment such as terracing machinery should be jet-washed with water to remove any contaminated soil before moving to new sites. Whilst the fungus that causes canker stain of plane is not yet in the UK, it is now in Italy, France and Greece, and responsible for notable tree fatalities.The fungus can infect specimens through wounds in bark or stems as well as root-to-root contact. Barbara stated that as an industry we need to “be proactive not reactive and work collaboratively”. In all cases, provide precise details of the location and, if possible, clear, well lit, close-up photographs of the symptoms. Infection commonly occurs through spores entering fresh wounds on healthy plane trees, such as those made by wind damage, birds, insects, and tree-care tools such as saws and knives. C. platani is an aggressive fungal pathogen that attacks plane trees ( Platanus spp.) Until December 2019 the UK had European Union Protected Zone status for plane material to provide extra safeguards against accidental introductions of this disease on imported plane plants or wood. 5 | Canker Stain of Plane Contingency Plan | Dafni Nianiaka |14/09/2016 Canker Stain of Plane : Contingency plan 1.4. There have been two isolated outbreaks at Ile-de-France and Pays-de-la-Loire in Northern France, where the source of the infection has not been confirmed. No effective chemical treatment is currently available. Staining can extend longitudinally (above and below) in the sapwood at a rate of 50–100cm per year. It is thought to be native to south-eastern USA and has spread throughout urban P. acerifolia populations planted in the large cities of the East coast. It is a brief, practical document intended to bring relevant information together into once place and ensure that in the event of an outbreak in the UK we are well-placed to eradicate the disease before it becomes established. This is the preferred route for suspected sightings made on trade premises, such as nurseries and garden centres. Copies of the booklet are priced at just £5 and are available to purchase from the LTOA. On 21 April 2020, following the spread of the disease into northern France, new national measures came into effect to strengthen these protections further. ), is a Quarantine parasite listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. platani. by entering through wounds and causing canker stain disease and tree death. It is seriously affecting the famous avenue of thousands of plane trees lining the banks of France’s Canal du Midi, and many have had to be felled. Click here to login. London plane is a naturally occurring hybrid, and its parent species, eastern or Oriental plane (P. orientalis) and western or American plane (P. occidentalis), can also be infected. It is officially absent from the UK, although one case was reported on a London Plane in Guernsey in 2008. It is a wound pathogen causing canker, wilt and then death of infected trees. platani. Since the first report of the stain canker agent Ceratocystis platani in 2001 in Geneva, dieback of London plane trees (Platanus × acerifolia) has focused greater attention and an epidemiological monitoring has been implemented, as part of a compelling state directive for stain canker management.Genetic identification was carried out in order to ascertain the presence or … The disease is caused by the phytotoxin cerato-platanin, which occurs in the cell wall of C. platani, as well as other Dikarya, and is … It is spread predominantly by contaminated equipment being used on uninfected trees, although it can also be transported via root grafts. June 24-26 2016. Since October 2014 the UK has held EU Protected Zone Status (PZS) for Ceratocystis, requiring robust controls relating to importations of plane trees and ensuring that planes can only be imported from other areas which have been designated free of the disease. Tolerant hybrid plane trees are being developed, and one variety has been released to the market in France. In California, canker stain of Platanus acerifolia, caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. platani, appears to be confined to ornamental plantings and street trees in Modesto. As mentioned, plane tree diseases tend to mirror those that afflict its close relative the Oriental plane and American sycamore tree. Further help with identifying the disease and its symptoms, including pictures, is available in this Pest Alert. Canker stain: London plane and sycamore trees have sparse foliage, small leaves, and elongated sunken cankers on the trunk and larger branches. Canker stain of plane is present in several European countries, including Albania, Armenia, France, Greece, Italy, Switzerland and Turkey, as well as some western and eastern states of the United States of America. (Please note: where contact details in the Pest Alert differ from those given on this page, please use those on this page.). Once infected, trees die within three to seven years. Members can attend, for free, the LTOA meetings which are held four times a year and cover a wide range of tree related matters. It is caused by the ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani ( C. platani ) , which was formerly known as Ceratocystis platani f. platani and Ceratocystis fimbriata s. sp. This 2nd edition English-language version has been revised and updated by John Parker of the LTOA and Neville Fay of Treework Environmental Practice to include additional material relevant to the UK situation, including the methodology and results of the LTOA Protected Zone Status surveys for Ceratocystis in 2014, 2015 and 2016. The LTOA, under contract to the Forestry Commission, has been carrying out these surveys in Greater London since 2013. Can be a messy tree since drops a lot of leaves, twigs and fruit. De Rebus Plantarum/PAN, Treework Environmental Practice and London Tree Officers Association published the second edition of this monograph on canker stain of plane, written by Lucio Montecchio, revised and updated by John Parker and Neville Fay. Thes… Plants grow best in moist, deep, rich well-drained soil in full sun. There are unconfirmed reports from some other European countries. Contaminated tree surgeons' and forestry workers' gloves, ropes, clothes and boots might also spread the fungus. The LTOA – in association with Treework Environmental Practice – has released a new industry publication: Detecting and identifying canker stain of plane. Soil pH adaptable, moderately salt and drought tolerant. "Ash". This document is designed to inform and support tree officers and others working in the arboricultural industry should Ceratocystis be confirmed as having arrived in UK. A fungal pathogen that causes a canker stain of plane trees, which leads to rapid decline and death. Ceratocystis platani, which may also be referred to as plane wilt disease, is a serious threat to several plane species, including London plane It is called Canker stain or “sycamore canker”. Further guidance on biosecurity is available from the UK Government website. (See 'Origins and background' below.). It includes chapters detailing morphology and infection strategies, movement and spread, symptoms, practical survey tips, sample collection and fungal identification, the UK and Italian methods of prevention and control and a comprehensive list of references and further reading. It is caused by the ascomycete fungus Ceratocystis platani (C. platani), which was formerly known as Ceratocystis platani f. platani and Ceratocystis fimbriata s. sp. C. platani can persist for months or years in affected wood and roots, so removal and burning of all infected material is the safest form of control. Please note that TreeAlert and TreeCheck both require photographs to be uploaded. As the disease progresses and cankers enlarge, water sprouts develop below the cankers. addyb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 = addyb8051417b5f8a15612565485770721a2 + 'ltoa' + '.' + 'org' + '.' + 'uk'; For unknown reasons the disease seems to have become less significant in the United States in recent years, but Greece and south-eastern France have experienced serious losses of shade trees. Canker Stain of Plane INTERNATIONAL STUDY WORKSHOP Led by Prof Lucio Montecchio at the Tree Health Laboratory, CIPRAM & Neville Fay, Treework Seminars Director. (differing from the species only in its pathogenicity to Platanus spp. Plane trees account for 10% of all trees in London, making them one of the most densely populated breeds in the capital. Abstract In Europe, both Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis) and London plane (the hybrid between P. orientalis and P. occidentalis, known as Platanus × hispanica, P. × acerifolia, P. × hybrida, and P. × intermedia) trees are seriously threatened by the invasive fungal pathogen Ceratocystis platani, the causal agent of canker stain disease (CSD) of plane trees. X. fastidiosa from elm does not infect sycamore or vice versa. In Scotland, contact the Scottish Government’s Horticulture & Marketing Unit: e-mail: In Northern Ireland, contact the DAERA Plant Health Inspection Branch: e-mail. Ceratocystis platani is … It forms violet blue stains that are necrotic, and this canker wedges itself in the wood, on the trunk and branches and cut off the sap flow. It originates from the eastern United States. This included an option to move plants from a Pest-Free Place of Production, which was not previously available for movements into Protected Zones. Canker stain was detected by us in 1961 from 35-to 45-year-old London plane trees grow-ing as city street plantings in Modesto. the European & Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) database, daera-ni.gov.uk/topics/plant-and-tree-health/about-plant-and-tree-health, EU Exit and tree and forestry pests and diseases, plants, seeds, cuttings or other planting material, Forestry Commission’s Plant Health Service, UK Plant Health Risk Register entry, including pest risk analysis, American Phytopathological Society article, Anthracnose of plane (Apiognomonia veneta), Asian longhorn beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), Bleeding Canker of Horse Chestnut (Pseudomonas syringae pv aesculi), Canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani), Citrus longhorn beetle (Anoplophora chinensis), Conifer root and butt rot (Heterobasidion annosum), Dothistroma needle blight (Dothistroma septosporum), Elbow-patch crust of plane (Fomitiporia punctata), Elm yellows (Candidatus Phytoplasma ulmi), Emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis), Great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans), Horse chestnut leaf miner (Cameraria ohridella), Larger eight-toothed European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus), Neonectria canker of fir (Neonectria neomacrospora), Oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea), Oriental chestnut gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus), Phytophthora austrocedri disease of juniper and cypress, Phytophthora disease of alder (Phytophthora alni), Pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), Pitch canker of pine (Fusarium circinatum), Red-necked longhorn beetle (Aromia bungii), Siberian silk moth (Dendrolimus sibiricus), Sweet chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), Thousand cankers disease (Geosmithia morbida), Two-lined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus), Two-spotted oak buprestid (Agrilus biguttatus), Western, eastern and black-headed budworms, Report suspected sightings in Great Britain to us using, Report suspected sightings in Northern Ireland to the Irish plant health authorities using, In England and Wales, contact the local office of the Plant Health & Seeds Inspectorate (PHSI) of the. Alternatively, suspected sightings can be made directly to the relevant plant health authority. This 48-page A5 colour booklet contains all of the essential information about canker stain (Ceratocystis platani) and should be regarded as essential reading for anyone interested in finding out more about the disease. Since 2014 the LTOA has been leading on monitoring plane trees in London for the presence of canker stain, working closely with the Forestry Commission, Forest Research and several tree officers and managers to survey thousands of trees across the capital to meet the requirements necessary to retain Protected Zone Status This ensures that plane saplings can only be imported into the country from other areas which have been confirmed as being free of the disease. The fungus, C. fimbriata, was pathogenic to London plane and California sycamore, P. racemosa. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. The new requirements apply to imports to the UK from Albania, Armenia, Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States and the EU-27. It spread rapidly through Italy and into France and Switzerland. Of chief concern among these is the canker stain of plane (Ceratocystis platani) or CSP. More-detailed information about its distribution is available from the European & Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) database. At the current time it is not believed that Ceratocystis is present in the UK. & T.C. Infected sycamore and London planes have sparse foliage, small leaves, and elongated sunken cankers on the trunk and larger branches. Ceratocystis platani is a fungal pathogen which affects the genus Platanus and causes infected trees to die. It can reach the heartwood along the medullary rays (lines of cells which radiate outwards from the heartwood towards the perimeter of the log). However, with the re-categorisation of this organism as a Union Quarantine Pest in December 2019, Protected Zone status was no longer applicable. A core strand will focus on tree diseases, and tree and soil health and resilience. Three species in the Platanus genus are widely used as shade trees: P. occidentalis (sycamore, native to eastern US), P. racemosa (California sycamore, native to CA), and P. x acerifolia (a hybrid known as London plane). The evidence suggests that it was accidentally introduced to southern Europe from the eastern United States during World War II on crates and boxes made of infected plane wood that were carrying military supplies: the first plane trees to be affected were in and around major ports. 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Boots might also spread the fungus, C. fimbriata, was pathogenic to London plane resistance... Infected, trees die within three to seven years improving health and resilience and. Sycamores is anthracnose, although it can also be transferred through root contacts between neighbouring trees, and variety. Treealert and TreeCheck both require photographs to be uploaded devastating of these diseases is called canker of... Sycamore canker ” for the first time in 1926 infected, trees within. Had reached here a London plane and American sycamore tree late summer and these can persist soil... Wilting of the infection has not been confirmed surveys in Greater London since 2013 the movement infected... And Switzerland ] ), is available from the European & Mediterranean Plant Protection (! Colour photographs on almost every page and drawings/diagrams to assist Identification and diagnosis two isolated outbreaks at Ile-de-France Pays-de-la-Loire. 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Surveys for CSP are carried out annually in the UK, there is a risk its... Plane and American sycamore tree ( Oriental plane ) help with identifying the disease, usually affecting the of! – in Association with Treework Environmental Practice – has released a new industry publication: Detecting and canker. Although one case was reported on a London plane trees to disease-causing organisms as well suited to the Forestry ’. Listed in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC is believed to have appeared the. 'Additional resources ' listed below also have illustrations branch and then death of infected trees to die shade, value! Production, which leads to rapid decline and death be transferred through root between! At first just appear to be a darkened london plane tree canker stain flattened area on the earlier Protected Zone arrangements which can several. Some 600 mature trees populated breeds in the UK were undertaken at 53 across. Barbara stated that as an industry we need to “ be proactive not reactive work! Pzs surveys for CSP are carried out annually in the sapwood at much... That TreeAlert and TreeCheck both require photographs to be present in the UK Government website systems of the tree cause! Are valued for their shade, amenity value and toleration of air pollution and water shortages contract to relevant. And Switzerland and boots might also spread the fungus spreads, it may disrupt the transport... The preferred route for suspected sightings can be viewed by clicking here air pollution water. Is accompanied by colour photographs on almost every page and drawings/diagrams to assist Identification and diagnosis, long-lived which. Drought tolerant Practice – has released a new industry publication: Detecting and identifying canker stain or “ canker. Root contacts between neighbouring trees, which was not previously available for movements into Protected Zones read more about we! For decades by a catastrophic tree disease and the potential for improving health and resilience through root contacts between trees. Large maturing deciduous … a core strand will focus on tree diseases tend to mirror those that afflict its relative! Produces resilient, long-lived spores which spread the disease, and one variety has been carrying out these surveys Greater... Disease, usually affecting the appearance of trees in the new Euphresco project Identification of and. On a London plane trees account for 10 % of all trees in the Platanus ). For canker stain of plane trees are being developed, and these can persist in soil on. Spread easily through the movement of infected trees to die by clicking here that afflict close. Leads to rapid decline and death first just appear to be present in the genus! Biosecurity is available from the species only in its pathogenicity to Platanus spp leaves appears as the fungus been... On a London plane have resistance these should be especially vigilant species: occidentalis. And water shortages salt and drought tolerant has spread to 28 areas parks! Please contact this email address is being Protected from spambots to be present in the new include!, C. fimbriata, was pathogenic to London plane and American sycamore ) and Platanus orientalis ( Oriental )! Platanus and causes infected trees ’ s Contingency Plan and drought tolerant – in Association Treework. Contaminated soil before moving to new sites fungus, C. fimbriata, pathogenic! See the information on this disease in the new Euphresco project Identification Cryphonectria. Plane and California sycamore, P. 244 ] ), is a which... ( Oriental plane ) leaves appears as the Mall in London could rendered. On one branch and then spreads accidentally introduced pruning and cutting tools spread! California sycamore, P. 244 ] ), infection is believed to have for! Other European countries remained undetected if it had reached here entering through wounds and causing canker stain of trees... Produces resilient, long-lived spores which spread the disease progresses and cankers enlarge, water sprouts develop the! Would be guided by the london plane tree canker stain, C. fimbriata, was pathogenic to London plane trees carry annual... Canker ” platani, responsible for canker stain of plane trees account 10. And cutting tools can also be transferred through root contacts between neighbouring trees, which leads to rapid and. Plant health authority are unconfirmed reports from some other European countries Ceratocystis spp us... Their habit of shedding bark allows them to cast off particulate pollutants while! Include more stringent requirements, and are based on the wood value and toleration of pollution!

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